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Monday, November 28, 2011

saqarTvelos adgilobrivi saeklesio krebebis Zeglebi

1243 wlis axali drois dadgenileba – miRebulia saeklesio krebis dros, warmoadgens mimarTvas daviT ulus mimarT, rom eklesiisTvis Sewiruli qoneba daubrunon eklesias.
mcire da didi sjuliskanoni – mcire sjulis kanoni gamoica eqvTime mTawmindelis redaqtirebiT X-XI saukuneebSi da Seicavs 4 Zegls:
Ø  wesi da gangeba VI msoflio krebis dadgenilebisa
Ø  kanoni SecodebulTagani
Ø  kanoni dRiTi-dReTa cdomaTani
Ø  Zegliswera sarwmunoebisa
masSi ganxilulia bralis sakiTxi, rac sakmaod didi miRwevaa maSindeli samarTlisTvis.
didi sjuliskanoni ki gamoica arsen iyalToelis redaqciiT XI-XII ss. da mas Tan ebmis ruis-urbnisis krebis mimoxilva.
ruis-urbnisis ‘Zegliswera’ – ruis urbnisis kreba dakavSirebulis daviT aRmaSeneblis mierganxorcielebul reformebTan. adgilic man Tavad SearCia. es aRqmuli iyo rogorc sagangebo krebad da ara rogorc Cveulebriv krebad. krebis mizani iyo im periodSi Semosuli mavne zne-Cveulebebis aRkveTa. es Zegli aris mniSvnelovani ara rogorc saeklesio aramed rogorc politikuri wyaro.
is SesavalTan erTad sam ZiriTad nawils moicavda, sadac mocemulia qarTuli sazogadoebis filosofiur-samarTlebrivi da istoriuli safuZvlebi. aseve aRwerilia eklesiis daarseba sazogadod da saqarTveloSi. meore nawilSi gadmocemulia krebis mier miRebuli kanonmdebloba. mesame nawilSi ki sinodikoni sadac redaqtori mravalJamiers usurvebs cocxlebs.
ruis-urbnisis krebas daudgenia 15 kanoni romlebic Semdeg praqtikaSi gatarda. pirvel rigSi moxda eklesiis gawmenda uRirsi mRvdelmTavrebisgan da dawesda minimaluri asaki TiToeuli TanamdebobisTvis. aikrZala calcalke qorwineba., da gansazRvra saqorwino asaki. Zegliswera aseve krZalavs vaWrobas eklesia-monastrebSi radganac is samlocvelo adgilia da ara savaWro. krebam aseve gaiTvaliswina mkvdris damarxvis dro da adgili da akrZala ucxo rjulis adamianebTan qorwineba.
kaTalikosTa samarTali – Sedgenilia qarTlis kaTalikosis malaqiasa da afxazeTis kaTalikosis evdemonis mier 1543-1549 wlebSi. is Sedgenilia dasavleT saqarTveloSi da misi gavlenac swored dasavleTze vrceldeboda Tumca masSi monawileobas ar iRebda gurieli. Zegli Sedgenilia maSindeli gaxSirebuli kriminalis winaaRmdeg brZolisTvis. yvelaze mkacrad is krZalavda mamluqebis gayidvas (da ara yidva-gayidva). aris moxseniebuli sakmaod bevri saero sasjelic da is Sedgeba 21 muxlisgan.

vaxtang VI-is samarTlis wigni

vaxtang VI-m swavlulTa daxmarebiT Sekriba, gadmoaTargmnina da gadaamuSava ucxouri samarTlis cnobili, aseve Tavi mouyara qarTuli samarTlis wyaroebs da Tavi erTad mouyara, bolos ki TviTon sagangebo komisiis TanamSromlobiT Seqmna. es xelnaweri Cvenamde sruladaa Semonaxuli. masSi mefe ganmartavs Tu ratom daamata TviTon sakuTari samarTlis wigni, da amas imiT xsnis rom ucxouri samarTali ar Seesabameba qarTul sinamdviles.
krebulSi Sesulia Semdegi samarTlis Zeglebi:
Ø  samarTali mosesi – Seicavs bibliidan amokrebil muxlebs. is wesiT moses ki ara ebraelTa mefe iosias dros unda iyos Sedgenili. ‘meore sjuli’ saqarTveloSic moqmedebda sxva qristianul qveynebTan erTad.
Ø  berZnuli samarTali – warmoadgens XIV saukunis sasuliero piris maTe vlastaris sintagmis Semoklebul redaqcias romelic Sevsebulia sxva wyaroebidan.
Ø  somxuri samarTali – Sedgeba ori nawilisagan siriul-romauli samarTlis da mxiTar goSis samarTlisgan. siriul-romauli samarTali moqmedebda bizantiis gavlenis qveS myof qristianul qveynebSi. rac Seexeba mxiTar goSs, is XII-XIII saukuneebis grigorianeli moZRvari iyo.
Ø  kaTalikosTa samarTali – Sedgenilia XVI saukuneSi, dasavleT saqarTvelos episkoposTa mier Tumca moqmedebda mTel saqarTveloSi.
Ø  giorgi brwyinvalis samarTali – is Sedgenili iyo mTiulTaTvis da adgilobrivi xasiaTis sjuldebas warmoadgenda.
Ø  beqa-aRbuRas samarTali – Sedgeba 4 nawilisgan beqas samarTali (1-65 muxli), aRbuRas samarTali (66-98), bagrat kurapalatis samarTali (99-160) da kanonikuri samarTlis fragmenti (161-170). pirveli ori Sedgenilia XIII-XIV saukuneebSi xolo bolo ori Sedgenili unda iyos XI saukuneSi.
Ø  vaxtang VI-is samarTlis wigni – Seadgina TviTon vaxtang VI-m. Sedgeba 270 muxlisgan, dayofilia karebad da paragrafebad. masSi ganxilulia samarTlis TiTqmis yvela dargi.
vaxtang VI-is samarTlis wigni pirvelad daibeWda rusulad peterburgSi 1826 wels. xolo SemdegSi ukve qarTuladaac baqraZis redaqtorobiT.

beqa-aRbuRas samarTali

samcxe—javaxeTis aTabagebs Soris gamoirCeoda beqa I jayeli, romlis aTabagobis periodSic saaTabago gamoyofili iyo erTiani saqarTvelosgan. swored man Seadgina samarTlis wigni romelic qarTuli samarTlis gamoirCeva. beqas wigni SemdgomSi aRbuRa I jayelma gaagrZela. maTi naSromi istoriaSi Sesulia rogorc beqa-aRbuRas samarTali.
beqas wignis Sesavali dakargulia, amitom ar viciT Tu sad Sedga es Zegli da sad moqmedebda.. rac Seexeba aRbuRas man Tavisi wigni sakanonmdeblo krebaze Seadgina, romelsac uamravi didebuli eswreboda. am krebaze aRbuRas dauyenebia sakiTxi beqas kanonisTvis daerTo damatebiTi muxlebi axladgaCenili Tu gaxSirebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg. Sesabamisad beqas 65 muxlisgan Semdgar kanonebs kidev 32 muxli daerTo.
aRbuRas samarTlis moqmedebis are SeiZleba ganisazRvros krebaze damswreTa mixedviT, es ki imdroindeli saqarTvelos TiTqmis erT mesameds niSnavs. garda amisa akademikosi iv. javaxiSvilis azriT im droisTvis aranairi mkveTri gansxvaveba kulturisa Tu socialuri mdgomareobis mxriv ar unda yofiliyo amitom es wigni mTeli maSindeli saqarTvelos damaxasiaTebladac SegviZlia miviCnioT.
sasjelebidan aRsaniSnavia rom qurds kanoni avalebda moparulis ormag gadaxdas rac qarTuli samarTlisaTvis gamonaklisia. aseve isic rom qalis daqvrivebis SemTxvevaSi mziTvi qals an mis mSobels ekuTvnoda. aseve zogierTi muxli eZRvneba sasamarTlo process da maTSi monawile mxareebs.
beqas samarTliT Svils ufleba hqonda gahyroda mamas magram mamulis gayofa akrZaluli iyo rac miuTiTebs rom beqas ar surs ojaxebis dapataraveba.
muxlebis umetesoba wignidan sisxlis samarTals ekuTvnis.

giorgi brwyinvalis Zeglis dadeba

giorgi brwyinvalis Zeglisdadeba Seiqmna mTiuleTSi adgilobrivi xelisuflebis mosaTviniereblad. istoriulad cnobilia rom am dros kriminali Zalian gaxSirebuli iyo. am mizeziT mefem Tavad Semoiara mTiuleTi, waiyvana TbilissSi warmomadgenlebi, moiwvia darbazi da Seadgina samarTlis wigni: ‘Zeglis dadeba’. es unda momxdariyo 1334-1335 wlebSi.
Zeglis dadeba Sedgenilia specialurad mTiuleTisaTvis romelic saqarTvelos erT-erTi SedarebiT CamorCenili kuTxe iyo. 
Zegli Sedgeba Sesavlisa da 46 muxlisagan da ZiriTadad sisxlis samarTlis normebs moicavs Tumca masSi aseve aris samoqalaqo da saojaxo samarTlis normebi. Zeglis dadebaSi igrZnoba Cveulebebis gavlena. amis kargi magaliTia is rom SurisZieba akrZalvis nacvlad mxolod SezRudulia. kerZod is SezRudulia droiT da xelisuflebiT. Tumca SurisZieba aRar gadadis gvarze rogorc es gvarovnuli wyobilebis dros iyo.
sasjelis ZiriTadi saxea Tanxis gadaaxda, Tumca agreTve mocemulia gaZeveba da gaparsva. aqac naTlad Cans rom wignze igrZnoba adaTebis da gvarovnuli sawyisebis gavlena.
gamoTqmulia mosazreba rom wignis mizani iyo centraluri xelisuflebis ganmtkiceba, vinaidan aikrZala aragvis saerisTavos gareT samsaxuri, dawesda sasjeli  laSqarSi gamousvlelobis da samefo xelisuflebis warmomadgenelTa sicocxlis xelyofisTvis da a.S.

dasturlamali

vaxtang VI-is mier Sedgenili kanonTa krebuli dasturlamali moicavs or nawils mefisa da dedoflis dasturlamals. maTSi erTad 266 muxlia warmodgenili. mkvlevarTa azriT Zegli Sedgenili unda iyos im periodSi rodesac vaxtang VI qarTls ganagebda.
dasturlamali sasaxlis ganawesia, Tumca masSi mocemulia mefis xelisuflebisa da mmarTvelobis centraluri da adgilobrivi organoebis daxasiaTeba da maTi funqciebi. dasturlamali moicavs sxvadasxva drois sakanonmdeblo aqtebs. masSi Sesulia: levan mefis Sedgenili mdivanbegobbis garigeba da boqaulTuxucesis sargo da rostom mefis gamocemuli murdris ganawesi. dasturlamali iTvaliswinebs adaTobrivi samarTlis safuZvlebs.
dasturlamalis moqmedebis dasasrulad iTvleba ruseTTan SeerTeba. radgan is awesrigebda sasaxlis ganawess, is yvelaze metad xelmwifis karis garigebas enaTesaveba.
dasturlamalSi yvelaze ukeTesad aris daxasiaTebuli qarTlis samefos ekonomikuri mdgomareoba. masSi moipoveba informacia samefos sagadasaxado sistemis Sesaxeb da daxasiaTebulia gadamxdelTa sxvadasxva kategoriis iuridiuli uflebebi. ZeglSi aseve daxasiaTebulia sasamarTlo organizacia, saapelacio aparati da sxv. aRsaniSnavia cnobebi vezirisa da mustofis Sesaxeb, aseve Turquli tomis elebis Sesaxeb. moipoveba masala saqalaqo wyobis Sesaxebac.

xelmwifis karis garigeba

xelmwifis karis garigeba erT-erTi mniSvnelovani Zeglia qarTuli samarTlis istoriaSi. is wesiT Sedgenili unda iyos XIV saukuneSi,  Tumca Cvenamde moaRwia XVII saukunis xelnaweris saxiT. igi aRmoaCina eqvTime TayaiSvilma, xolo gamosca ivane surgulaZem.
xelmwifis karis garigeba maRali qarTuli iuridiuli azrovnebis maCvenebelia. mas ara aqvs oficialuri xasiaTi. is dawerilia romeliRac sasaxlis moxelis mier. ivane javaxiSvilis azriT xelmwifis karis garigeba Sedgenili unda iyos dasavleT saqarTveloSi. nawarmoebSi ganxiluli mefis etiketi, mefis cxovreba da sxva ceremoniebi absoluturi monarqiis msgavsia.
xelmwifis karis garigeba Zalian hgavs dasturlamals, romelic vaxtang VI-m gamosca. misi mixedviT mefe darbazobas marTavs ori wesiT: didiT da patariT. Tu romeli gaimarTeboda es damokidebuli iyo mandaturTuxucesze, romlis moadgilec iyo amirejibi. stumrebis mowveva iyo ierarqiis mixedviT. mefe jer iRebda moZRvarT-moZRvars (gelaTis akademiis reqtori savaraudod), kaTalikoss, xolo Semdeg mwignobarTuxuces-Wyondidels. maT Semdeg ki modian sxvadasxva moxeleebi visac mefe esalmeba maTi wodebis Sesabamisad. yvela stumrisTvis adgili winaswar iyo gansazRvruli da mefesTan siaxlove warCinebulis pativad iTvleboda.
xelmwifis karis garigebis mixedviT mefe eklesiis meTauric aris. saeklesio dResaswaulebis dros swored is miuZRveba xalxs eklesiaSi. mis win yovelTvis droSa miaqvT. xolo ukan xalxi mihyveba. wirvis Semdeg imarTeba darbazoba mefis sasaxleSi.
ZeglSi mefe Zalian mniSvnelovnadaa warmodgenili. misi Cacmis pativi msaxurTuxucess, Rilebis Sekvris mesawoleTuxucess, xolo qudis daxurvis molareTuxucess ekuTvnis. RamiT mefis sawol oTaxTan erT-erTi mcveli mudam idga. iq Sesvlis ufleba ki mxolod amirejibs hqonda. ase rom ZeglSi Cans rom mefe absoluturi monarqi iyo, miuxedavad imisa rom saqarTveloSi amisaTvis winapiroba Seqmnili ar iyo. Tumca TviTon Zeglis avtori Zlieri monarqiis momxrea.
e. TayaiSvilis mixedviT es Zegli 39 muxladaa dayofili.